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The Sense of Injustice: Social Psychological Perspectives - Robert G. Folger - Google Books
Relative deprivation and the gender wage gap. Journal of Social Issues , 45 , — Jasso, Guillermina A new theory of distributive justice. American Sociological Review , 45 , 3— The theory of distributive justice force in human affairs: Analyzing the three central questions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp.
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- The Sense of Injustice - Social Psychological Perspectives | Robert G. Folger | Springer;
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The Cognitive Self: The Self-Concept
Smith Eds. Hillside NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Major, Brenda Gender differences in comparisons and entitlement: Implications for comparable worth. Journal of Social Issues , 45 , 99— Gender, entitlement, and the distribution of family labor. Journal of Social Issues , 49 , — Individual differences in justice behavior.
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Injustice in Schools: Perception of Deprivation and Classroom Composition
American Sociological Review , 50 , — Martin, Joanne For example, if the only thing that Maria cares about is getting into medical school, she may be devastated if she fails to make it. On the other hand, Marty, who is also passionate about medical school but who has a more complex self-concept, may be better able to adjust to such a blow by turning to other interests. People with high self-complexity seem to react more positively to the good things that happen to them but not necessarily less negatively to the bad things.
And the positive effects of self-complexity are stronger for people who have other positive aspects of the self as well. Theoretically, the concepts of complexity and clarity are independent of each other—a person could have either a more or less complex self-concept that is either well defined and consistent, or ill defined and inconsistent. However, in reality, they each have similar relationships to many indices of well-being.
For example, as has been found with self-complexity, higher self-concept clarity is positively related to self-esteem Campbell et al. Why might this be? Perhaps people with higher self-esteem tend to have a more well-defined and stable view of their positive qualities, whereas those with lower self-esteem show more inconsistency and instability in their self-concept, which is then more vulnerable to being negatively affected by challenging situations.
Consistent with this assertion, self-concept clarity appears to mediate the relationship between stress and well-being Ritchie et al. Greater clarity may promote relationship satisfaction in a number of ways. Also, perhaps when we feel clearer about who we are, then we feel less of a threat to our self-concept and autonomy when we find ourselves having to make compromises in our close relationships.
This is indeed what the research suggests. Like any other schema, the self-concept can vary in its current cognitive accessibility. Self-awareness refers to the extent to which we are currently fixing our attention on our own self-concept. Perhaps you can remember times when your self-awareness was increased and you became self-conscious—for instance, when you were giving a presentation and you were perhaps painfully aware that everyone was looking at you, or when you did something in public that embarrassed you.
Emotions such as anxiety and embarrassment occur in large part because the self-concept becomes highly accessible, and they serve as a signal to monitor and perhaps change our behavior. You may know some people for whom the physical appearance component of the self-concept is highly accessible.