It is commonly transmitted to humans by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Various types of brucella spp. Although B.
The incubation period may last for one to four weeks up to several months [ 19 ]. The patients may be asymptomatic or may even present serious clinical symptoms especially fever, night sweats and low back pain in the endemic region that should be differentiated from tuberculosis and other malignancies [ 20 ]. Brucellosis should be treated in order to avoid complications and sequelae of the disease. Combination therapies, which are widely employed in the treatment of brucellosis, consisted of doxycycline plus streptomycin or rifampin for 6 weeks [ 21 ].
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Several animals are main reservoirs for Y. The pathogen has been isolated from dog bite wound in some studies [ 22 ]. The patients may be asymptomatic in early stage and when the pathogen invades the mucosal surface of the intestine, watery or bloody diarrhea may be present. Campylobacter spp. This organism normally lives in the gastrointestinal tract of many animals. Direct contact with infected animals or their products is a leading cause of campylobacter transmission. Dogs and puppies are the major reservoirs for campylobacter. The incubation period in campylobacter enteritis varies from one to seven days.
Most of the patients present fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Also, bloody diarrhea may be present in more than 50 percent of the infected patients. Convulsion and seizure may be observed in some patients [ 27 ]. This infection is usually self-limited and does not need antimicrobial therapy. Focus on correction of electrolyte imbalance and hydration should be considered. Antibiotic therapy with fluoroquinolones, macrolides, or aminoglycosides is indicated in patients with severe disease [ 28 ]. Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacterium, which is found in the normal flora of the oropharyngeal tract of dogs and cats.
The pathogen is mostly transmitted to human by dogs bite and causes an overwhelming sepsis, particularly in elderly, immunocompromised or asplenic patients [ 25 ]. The pathogen can also lead to other fatal infections including meningitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, lung abscess or empyema and endocarditis.
16 diseases you can get from your pets
In addition, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome can be associated with capnocytophaga septicemia especially in immunocompromised patients [ 25 , 29 ]. The literature data have demonstrated that the mortality rate due to capnocytophaga septicemia is estimated to be of one third of the infected patients. Accordingly, early empirical therapy with third generation cephalosporins in patients who received a dog bite should be considered [ 30 ].
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative rod bacterium belonging to the genus Bordetella. The pathogen normally lives in the upper respiratory tract of the mammals such as dogs and cats and is transmitted to humans by aerosol. Human infection with B.
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The pathogen normally infects individuals via aerosol and direct contact with the body fluids of the infected animals. Although dogs are not the main reservoirs for C. In addition, in another study by Buhariwalla and colleagues, it was reported that C. In addition, the patients developed the symptoms of Q fever including fever, chills, nausea, vomiting and productive cough. Opacity is a common finding in chest radiography, and, in physical examination, crackles may be heard during auscultation.
The incubation period in this study was estimated to be between 8 and 12 days after the exposure to the infected animal. The patients with C. Leptospirosis is worldwide zoonoses that are mostly transmitted to human by environmental sources including contaminated soil, water, urine, or tissue of the infected animals.
Rodents are the major reservoirs for Leptospirosis; however, domestic animals including dogs can play an important role in leptospirosis transmission in endemic regions [ 37 ]. Mucosal surfaces of the human body including eye, vagina, nose, mouth, or erosive lesions, which have a direct contact with the contaminated urine, are the main ways of Leptospirosis transmission.
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The incubation period for this infection is averagely of about 10 days ranging from 2 to 26 days [ 38 , 39 ]. Leptospirosis may present with a variety of symptoms from no symptom to fever, nonproductive cough, headache, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, alveolar hemorrhage, and even meningitis [ 39 ]. Several antibiotics such as doxycycline, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, penicillin, amoxicillin, and ampicilin have been successfully employed for the treatment of Leptospirosis [ 40 ]. Some evidences demonstrated that this pathogen could also be isolated from the gingival of healthy dogs [ 41 ].
This pathogen should be discriminated from staphylococcus aureus. Penicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate are effective in the treatment of this infection [ 44 ]. Methicillin resistance staphylococcus aureus MRSA is a major cause of fatal infection in humans. Several investigations have reported that this pathogen has been isolated from some animals such as pigs, horses, cattle, cats and dogs.
fujicecibe.tk Of them, some believed that companion animals were the main reservoirs for the transmission of MRSA, being able to transmit the bacterium by direct contact with their owners. However, it seems that animal to human infection of MRSA is more seen in immunocompromised patients.
Nevertheless, some evidences showed that this bacterium could be transmitted to healthy humans who own an infected animal [ 45 , 46 ]. Traditional anti staphylococcal antibiotics are not more effective in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA.
Accordingly, newer drugs including vancomycin, linezolid and daptomycin are widely used in the treatment of MRSA infections [ 47 ]. Zoonoses are diseases that implicate both humans and animals and can be transmitted either by domestic pets or by wildlife animals. Many animals and their products can be reservoirs of zoonoses pathogens.
Among them, dogs are responsible for the transmission of several zoonotic diseases to their owners. Thus, dog owners should be informed regarding the zoonotic diseases and their ways of transmission to reduce these infections in human population. Several prophylactic and therapeutic strategies have been introduced in order to decrease the zoonotic diseases. Dog owners are recommended to wash their hands after any direct contact with their dogs, their products, urine, or feces.
Most of the viral and bacterial infections are transmitted from dogs to humans by dog bite; however, other infections caused by protozoa have a fecal oral transmission. Thus, food hygiene such as washing vegetables well and cooking meats adequately should be carefully done in order to eliminate the rate of zoonotic infections.
In addition, dogs should also be treated for diarrheal infections. Moreover, dog owners should feed their dogs with cooked meat to prevent campylobacter and salmonella infections. Raw meat and eggs should not be fed to dogs due to higher rate of infection susceptibility. Rabies vaccination should be considered for domestic dogs and the dog owners should also be aware of benefits of rabies vaccination before and after dogs bites.
Many authors reported that increasing the knowledge of dog owners regarding dog associated zoonotic infections and prevention strategies can dramatically reduce the zoonotic infections in dog owners and their families.
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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Med Life v. J Med Life. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: Sh. Received Jul 28; Accepted Dec This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Dogs are a major reservoir for zoonotic infections. Keywords: bacterial and zoonotic infections, viral infections, dogs, rabies, noroviruses. Noroviruses Noroviruses are a heterogeneous single strand RNA virus belonging to the Caliciviridae family. Pasteurella Pasteurella species are Gram-negative coccobacilli, which were primarily found in animals.
Salmonella Salmonella species are anaerobic and motile gram-negative bacilli that colonize in the large intestine of a variety of mammals, especially in the distal part of the colon and the mesenteric lymph nodes of the canine. Brucella Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonoses, which imposes a heavy burden on the national health services.
Yersinia enterocolitica Y. Campylobacter Campylobacter spp. Capnocytophaga Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacterium, which is found in the normal flora of the oropharyngeal tract of dogs and cats. Bordetella bronchiseptica Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative rod bacterium belonging to the genus Bordetella.
Coxiella burnetii C. Leptospira L.