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Hyphenation is used: 1 to separate two phoneme symbols which might otherwise be read as the digraph for another phoneme, eg. Intervocalic glottal hiatus is indicated by? Chapter Two Nominal Morphology This chapter is devoted to nominals which comprise the parts of speech: adjectives, pronouns and nouns. Adjectives, including verbal adjectives, may be adnominal, predicative or occur independently as nominal heads. When adjectives are used independently, they take all the case and number suffixes nouns take.

Adjectives form the topic of 2. Pronouns include personal, demonstrative and interrogative pronouns, and are dealt with in 2. Nouns and parts of speech used as nominal heads may be dualized and pluralized and take case endings. The ergative, absolutive, genitive, instrumental, vocative and locative cases are indicated by endings affixed directly to the noun and assimilating to its final in a regular way.

In addition, a number of postpositions can be affixed directly to the noun and are treated as case endings, viz. Two or more case endings may co-occur attached to a single noun, eg. Number and case are the topics of 2. Other spatial and abstract relations indicated by prepositions in English are indicated in Limbu by postpositions which are not attached to the noun as endings but are the complements of nouns in the genitive, eg.

Such postpositions are listed in the glossary.

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Agreement in adjectives Adjectives agree in gender but not in case or number with the nouns they modify. Nouns lack grammatical gender independent of semantic sex distinction.

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Some of these end in the derivational diminutive suffix -sa, eg. Adjectives may be adnominal, predicative with attributive 'to be' co-kma? Adnominally adjectives generally precede the noun they modify, although they also occur after the noun when the specified attribute establishes the identity of the nominal referent, rather than merely ascribe a generic trait to it.

This is especially the case with kinship terms in which the adjective identifies the individual concerned, eg. However, contrast with this the use of kyaij ke-mba in the following exchange, which takes place in a household with two pestles, a larger one and a smaller one: 1 - kyaij pi-re?. A group of invariable adjectives marked 'adv.

The nominalizing suffix -taQba The suffix -tarjba may be added to a noun or adjective and is also found in the adjectives a-kdai ba 'what kind of', htkdaqba 'that kind of', okdarjba 'this kind of, such a'. Added to a noun or adjective, the suffix -taba has the effect of creating a nomen with an associative or like meaning, strongly reminiscent of the suffix -vl in Hindi.

In the following sentence, 2 him-daba a'tto me-beg-c? Affixed to a noun, it may convey the sense of 'something like ' , as in the following example: 3 cigip-taijba co'k.

The suffix nominalizes adjectives which, without it, can occur only as predicate adjectives. The suffixed forms may be used either independently or adnominally. It is commonly suffixed to colour morphemes 2. He's always changing his tune, turning to the person in question Are you changing your story like a cuckoo? Don't keep changing your story in that fashion!

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The colour affixes The bound colour morphs mak 'black', pho 'white', hc? The resultant free forms can occur both as nouns and as adjectives. Your house is all red. The colour morphs can also occur in forms with the suffix -tajjba 'like, of the kind' 2. Maybe she's not a European a white-eye , but she sure is white-eyed!

The four bound colour morphs may also be incorporated into an active participial expression 6. Although an AP form of lo? The reason that maktaQba is suitable in 11 above, whereas makkclo? The associative nature of the -tai ba suffix in maktaqba results in a colour term which is less committal about the quality and degree of blackness than the active participial form of mak. Similarly, phodaqba is appropriate in the expression uttered by a LIrabu at seeing the untanned abdomen of a European in phodajjba kcdzo-k!

Additionally, the colour omdaba 'yellow' exists only in its -taijba suffixed form. The colour morpheme 'yellow' does not occur separately. The colour omdaqba has a very narrow range of applicability in the spectrum, limited to bright daffodil yellow. The colour omdaqba does not as such belong to the set of four cardinal colours listed above. The spectral range of the respective colours is defined under their glossary entries. Pronouns The personal pronouns differentiate three persons, three numbers and, in the non-singular first person, inclusive and exclusive.

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The personal pronouns are: aoga anchi anchige ani an ige khcnc? The pronoun atjga has a contracted form i ga in allegro speech. The third person pronoun khunc? The demonstratives koij 'this' and its synthetic plural koqha? Oga kcni? Note that, although personal pronouns take no ergative or absolutive suffix, adnominal quantifiers do, eg. Furthermore, the singular demonstratives can be used adnominal ly, whereas the personal pronouns cannot. The personal pronouns can occur as possessive prefixes, whereas the demonstratives cannot 2.

The similarities are that 1 the independently used demonstratives behave syntactically like personal pronouns and are even more frequent than khunc? Khunchi is a dual pronoun, whereas khcQha? However, both khunchi and khcijha? Ambiguity between duality and plurality of referent does not exist in the first and second person, whereas a coalesced non-singular is characteristic of the third person in general, esp. Demonstrative pronouns, khcn 'that', koij 'this' etc. Personal possessive prefixes The singular personal pronouns aijga, khcnc?

The dual and plural pronouns anchi-, anchige-, ani-, anige-, khcnchi-, kheni- and khunchi- are prefixed integrally to the noun they modify, eg. Infrequently, the singular prefixes are used together with a non-singular pronoun of the same person, eg. When possessive prefixes are added, some nouns, predominantly kinship terms and terms similar in meaning eg. Some nouns inc. Some noun compounds are separable when possessive prefixes are attached.

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These take prefixes on both parts, eg. These nouns are marked as such in the glossary. As in English, but even more so because Limbu makes no sex distinction here, the third person singular possessive is ambiguous.

The sentence khunc? The burden of disambiguating such utterances rests on the context. Personal pronouns: an analysis The following is a morphemic analysis of the first personal pronouns: ar ga a 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 ga e si d i si d i ge e ge e person. It is virtually certain that -ge and -be are contracted reflexes of -gya and -bya because the latter forms are still characteristic of the speech of Pacthare speakers and even common amongst some elderly women native to the phedppe area, eg. The first person morpheme a- denotes 'inclusive of speaker'.

This same morpheme is also reflected by the first person verbal affixes -a, -? Dualization and pluralization In nouns, the plural suffix is -ha? The plural suffix is superfluous when the plurality of the noun is indicated by the verb or the general context, eg.

A grammar of Limbu - George van Driem - Google книги

The plural suffix is used 1 to indicate plurality in a context in which the plurality of the nominal referent would not otherwise be evident, 2 to stress the plurality of the nominal referents, or 3 to indicate multiplicity or manifoldness. A man came. The men came. There is a book. There are books. There are all sorts of books.

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The use of the plural suffix to indicate manifoldness is well illustrated by the pluralization of proper names or kinship terms which do not have plural referents in the strict sense. Everybody else will stick around. Collective nouns which singular may take the example. A plural noun takes a singular verb when the nominal referents are viewed collectively The plural of men 'price' in both 16 and 17 is logical in view of the fact that the various commodities available at the bazar all differ in price.

Adjectives may also be pluralized when used as nouns themselves. In the non-singular, the dual of third-person arguments is marked vis--vis the plural. A dual referent may be indicated by a plural noun with a verb in the dual 19 and, less commonly, a plural verb may be used with a dual subject Conversely, the dual suffix is not attached to nouns with non-dual referents.